According to Virginia Henderson, every human has at least 14 fundamental needs. Here is the list:
1. Breath normally
2. Eat and drink adequately
3. Eliminate body wastes
4. Move and maintain desirable postures
5. Sleep and rest
6. Select suitable clothes – dress and undress
7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying the environment.
8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument.
9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
10.Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
11. Worship according to one’s faith.
12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
Well, most of the physiological needs are evident: to breath, eat, drink etc… However, I was a little bit surprised of her choice to include social spiritual and intellectual activities in the list of the 14 fundamental needs, and she’s right: I guess those are the needs that differentiate human beings from the rest of animals: the need to communicate, to worship, to work, to play and to learn…